Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler – The Dictator and Nazi Leader

Adolf hitler
Image: Adolf hitler[9]

Adolf hitler is one of the most unforgettable man in this worlds history who was responsible for world war II, which lead to the death of 11 million people’s approximately. He had served as german chancellor from January 30, 1933 to April 30, 1945.[1] As a Nazi leader and german dictator he implemented programs such as Euthanasia, T-4 and concentration camps for mass murder of 6 millions jews.[4] Hitler’s origin was from Austria, Later he moved to germany in 1913 at age of 24. Defeat of germany in world war I was his burning desire to conquest european countries.[1]

Adolf Hitler’s birth and family origin:

Adolf hitler was born on the evening of April 20, 1889 around 18.30 in the Gasthof zum Pommer, a town in upper Austria located across the border of Bavaria.[1] Hitlers father Alois Schicklgruber was an illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber.[5] 

adolf hitler's ancestors and family
Image: Adolf hitler’s ancestors and family[1]

Initially Alois married Anna Glasl. They didn’t have child and Anna Glasl-Hoerer died in 1883 due to poor health. After one moth Alois married Franziska Matzelsberger, a hotel cook and they had two children Alois and Angela. Franziska too died of tuberculosis within  three months after giving birth to her daughter, Angela. Six months later on January 7, 1885 Alois married Klara Pölzl who became mother of Adolf hitler.[1]

Klara Pölzl first two children Gustav and Ida died in few months after birth. Adolf hitler was the third son and later hitler had a younger brother and sister, But his younger brother died at age of six.[1]

Adolf Hitler’s early life:

Adolf Hitler entered public school in 1895 at age of six in the village of Fischlham, a short distance to southwest of Linz, when his father retired from the customs service at the age of fifty-eight. His father dreamed of making his son as a civil servant, But Hitler was interested in painting and he wanted to became a painter. Adolf Hitler was 13 years old when his father Alois Hitler died on January 03, 1903, at age of 65 due to lung hemorrhage while taking a morning walk. Then Hitler’s mother aged 42 moved to a modest apartment in Urfahr, a suburb of Linz with her two children Adolf and Paula.[1]

Although Hitler was determined to become an artist, He started to think of politics at age of 16. He took entrance examination at Vienna Academy of Fine Arts in October 1907 as the first practical step in fulfilling his dream of becoming a painter, But he failed to succeed in it. In the meantime his mother was dying of breast cancer and so he returned to linz. On December 21, 1908, as the town began to assume its festive Christmas garb, Adolf Hitler’s mother died, and two days later she was buried at Leonding beside her husband.[1]

Hitler moved to Vienna in 1909 and he had an opportunity to continue his education. But the young Adolf didn’t even try his ambition to enter the School of Architecture, even though when he had an option to enter as a “special talent” without high-school diploma certificate. He preferred to do odd jobs like shoveling snow, beating carpets, carrying bags outside the West Railroad Station and occasionally for a few days working as a building laborer.[1]

Hitler’s painting:

Less than a year after moving to Vienna (i.e from November 1909) he stayed in Men’s hostel at 27 Meldemannstrasse Vienna, near the Danube. Because of hunger he was forced to work as a day laborer and then as a small painter. Always, Adolf Hitler says of these times as…[1]

“Hunger was then my faithful bodyguard; he never left me for a moment and partook of all I had”

He painted crude little pictures of Vienna, usually of some well-known landmark such as St. Stephen’s Cathedral, the opera house, the Burgtheater and the Palace of Schoenbrunn. According to available facts he copied his own old works as he couldn’t draw the nature. He often drew advertising posters for shopkeepers product such as Teddy’s perspiration powder.[1]

Hitler’s motivation towards politics:

There was an equality problem in Austria with different nationalities which turned into social revolt and racial struggle. It made Adolf Hitler to follow the activities of the three major political parties of old Austria.[1]

  1. The Social Democrats
  2. The Christian Socialists
  3. The Pan-German Nationalists

Lessons learned by Hitler at Vienna:

One day Hitler saw a mass demonstration of Vienna workers and he stood there watching it for two hours. Then, at home he began to read the Social Democratic press, leaders speech and its organization. From this he came to three conclusion which explained to him the success of the Social Democrats.[1]

  1. Create a mass movement
  2. Art of propaganda among the masses
  3. Knew the value of using “spiritual and physical terror”

Spiritual terror – a tactic based on precise calculation of all human weaknesses, and its result will lead to success with almost mathematical certainty[1]

Physical terror – For while in the ranks of their supporters the victory achieved seems a triumph of the justice of their own cause, the defeated adversary in most cases despairs of the success of any further resistance[1]

Hitler’s favorite political parties:

Pan-German Nationalist Party founded by Georg Ritter von Schoenerer strongly attracted Hitler and he analyzed party failure as mentioned below[1]

  • Failure of the Pan-Germans to arouse the masses
  • Failure to win over the support of at least some of the powerful and well established institutions of the nation (For example: the Church, the Army, the cabinet or the head of state)

Hitler’s reason for hating Jews:

As per hitler, Jews were largely responsible for prostitution and the white-slave traffic. They were seducing innocent christian girls and thus adulterating their blood.[1] For Nazis , the Jews in Germany were a dangerous foreign race and not an integral part of their nation.[4]

Move from Vienna to Germany:

In the spring of 1913, At age of 24 Adolf Hitler moved to Germany. It is assumed that Hitler left Austria to escape military service.[1] Later he was located in Munich by Austrian authorities and ordered him to report for examination in Linz. Due to financial issues he was examined in Salzburg on February 5, 1914 as it was nearby Munich, and found unfit for military or even auxiliary service on account of poor health. Dr. Jetzinger certified that he is incapable of military service because of a disease without describing the disease itself.[2]

Entry into Bavarian regiment:

On August 3rd, 1914, Adolf Hitler presented an urgent petition to His Majesty, King Ludwig III, requesting to be allowed to serve in a Bavarian regiment. A day later his request was granted.[3]

Hitler and world war I:

After three months of training in 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment, they arrived to battle at the end of October 1914. In four days of hard fighting at the first Battle of Ypres their regiment was reduced from 3,500 to 600 men. Adolf Hitler suffered from temporary blindness due to British gas attack in October 1918 near Ypres. On November 10, 1918 he came to know that they lost in war when he was recovering from temporary blindness and war came to end on November 11, 1918.[1]

As per Hitler the German Army had not been defeated in the field. It had been stabbed in the back by the traitors at home.[1]

He was awarded twice for bravery work during world war I. First awarded Iron Cross – Second Class in December 1914 and then Iron Cross – First Class in August 1918, which were given to a common soldier in the old Imperial Army. But there are criticism stating that Hitler added it in “Meine Kampf” for his political reputation.[1]

Hitler’s breakthrough for political entry:

After war he returned to Munich at the end of November 1918. During that period Bavaria had a political instability and Hitler made his start at this situation. As Hitler performed well in the war, He was assigned to a job in the Press and News Bureau of the Political Department of the Army’s district command. There the soldiers had political instruction courses. In “Meine Kampf” Hitler stated that,[1]

“He intervened during a lecture in which someone had said a good word for the Jews”. This prejudiced against Jews pleased his superior officers which apparently promoted him as an educational officer and the main task was to take action to reduce or prevent dangerous ideas in pacifism, socialism and democracy. This opportunity was a biggest breakthrough for his political carrier.

The Nazi party:

In September 1919, Adolf Hitler received orders from the Army’s Political Department to have a look at a tiny political group in Munich called “the German Workers party” because they might be a part of Socialist or Communist. He attended the meeting of German Workers party with other 25 persons which took place in a dark and gloomy room. Later, Hitler received a postcard saying that he had been accepted in the German Worker’s Party. Hitler decided not to join in “the German Worker’s party” and attended committee meeting to which he had been invited to explain in person his reasons for not joining the party.[1]

Four committee members took place in committee meeting. All the reports were in favor of Adolf Hitler and every one expressed Hitlers approval. Hitler returned home and started to think whether to join the party or not. After two days of pondering he decided to join and enrolled as the seventh member of German Worker’s Party.[1]

First public speech by Adolf Hitler:

Hitler personally typed and distributed eighty invitations made by him. The committee was expecting masses of crowd but only seven people’s were in meeting and they were seven committee members. In the next attempt Hitler increased no of invitations by using mimeograph machine, he also saved some marks (former German currency) to insert the meeting invitation in local newspaper. This time 111 people’s attended the meeting where Hitler made his first speech (He spoke for 30 minutes).[1]

Rise of Hitler in the party:

In 1920, He took over the parties propaganda and immediately organized a biggest meeting on February 24, 1920 with a seating capacity of nearly two thousand. For the first time Hitler defined 25 points of the German Worker’s Party program. On April 1, 1920 “National Socialist” name was added to German Worker’s Party and became National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi is abbreviation of Nationalsozialistische in German). During this period Hitler left the army and started to involve in politics completely. Hitler organized storm troopers squads which included people’s with professional and long term experience in war to keep order of party meetings. Later this strong-arm squads were used to break up other parties. Once in 1921, Hitler personally used his stormtroopers to beat “Ballerstedt” a person in Bavarian federalist during a meeting. For this crime he was sentenced to three months in jail.[1]

In summer 1921, Hitler went to Berlin to expand his party from Bavarian borders to whole Germany. During this period other committee members decided to turn against Hitler, Because He had become too dictatorial for them. So, they proposed to have alliance with some south German parties like “The German Socialist Party”. After knowing the situation Hitler hurried back to Munich and decided to resign from the party. Party members realized that Hitler as a powerful speaker and best organizer, Due to this special qualities party refused to accept Hitlers resignation. Till 1929 he lived in a two-room flat in the Thierschstrassen, Munich. Its unclear that, how he managed his living expenses. Its expected that his close friends lent him money for rent, food, etc.[1]

The French occupation of the Ruhr began to unify the German people against the republican government in Berlin, Because the German government had failed to meet its reparation payments called for under the Treaty of Versailles. On September 1923 Deutscher Kampfbund (German Fighting Union) decided to over overthrow the Republic government, with Hitler as one of a triumvirate of leaders. Germany was in Emergency Act between September 26, 1923 and February 1924 due french issue in Ruhr. Hitler decided it  as the right time to take control of political power.[1]

The Beer Hall Putsch:

The value of German currency Mark started to decline which lead German people’s looking for new leader who can make impossible into possible. Around 20.45 on November 8, 1923 S.A. troops surrounded the Buergerbraukeller with some S.A. troops mens holding machine gun at entrance of the hall. To attract audience attention, Hitler jumped up on the table and fired a revolver shot toward the ceiling. The speaker Kahr paused his speaking to see what was going around. A police major tried to stop Hitler, but he pointed his pistol at him and pushed on. Hitler took the stage and shouted[1]

“The National Revolution has begun”!.

This building is occupied by six hundred heavily armed men. No one may leave the hall unless there is immediate silence. The Bavarian and Reich governments have been removed and a provisional national government formed. The barracks of the Reichswehr and police are occupied. The Army and the police are marching on the city under the swastika banner.

Hitler ordered all the three political leaders (Kahr, Lossow and Seisser) to follow him to a nearby private room and ordered them to join with him. If they do so, then all the three will get an important key job in Bavarian government or in the Reich government which he was forming. As they refused to join him, he pointed the pistol to them and told “I have four shots in my pistol, Three for you and last one for me”. Then also they were not ready to join Hitler. Plan was not working as expected for Hitler, so suddenly Hitler rushed back to stage and informed crowd that the three leaders had joined him to form the new national government. The Bavarian Ministry is dismissed and a new national government is formed which will be headed by me. Crowd went in to cheers as the three leaders had joined Hitler but they don’t know that it was a lie.[1]

General Ludendorff came forward to join new revolution made by Hitler and asked all the three men to co-operate. As General Ludendorff requested Kahr, Lossow and Seisser agreed to join Hitler and then they were released. Hitler, General Ludendorf, Kahr, Lossow and Seisser returned back stage and made a brief speech to support the new revolutionary government. After hearing this news, an order was passed from Berlin that the Nazi party was dissolved. Next day after noon (i.e November 9, 1923) Hitler marched with storm troopers to center city of Munich. As per available records it is said that Hitler fired his first shot at a police man who refused to surrender. Within next one minute sixteen nazi supporters and three police men were dead (or) injured including Adolf Hitler.[1]

On April 1, 1924 Hitler was found guilty for this act and was sentenced to five years of imprisonment with eligible for parole after six months. After spending some months in prison, on December 20, 1924 Hitler was released from prison. From the Beer Hall Putsch revolt Hitler learned not to use arms and armed forces for this kind of situations. The ban on nazi party was removed after two weeks from his jail release, as Hitler requested the state government of Bavaria that nazi party will go in peacefull way here after.[1]

Mein Kampf:

With reowned self-confidence after returning from jail Hitler completed his book and wanted to name it as “Four and a Half Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice”. But it was shortened as “Mein Kampf” by Max Amann, the manager of the Nazi publishing business. The first volume was published in 1925, which had about 400 pages and costed twelve marks. It was wrapped with philosophy which made Germans to take it seriously at that time.[1]

YearNo of books sold
 1925 9,473
 1926 6,913
 1927 5,607
 1928 3,015
 1929 7,664
 1930 54,086
 1940 50,808
 1941 90,351

 

Hitler’s political progress between 1925 and 1933:

Hitler made his first speech after jail release on February 28, 1925 at Bürgerbräukeller and his speech was again threatening the State with violence. For this reason, his speech in public was banned by government and lasted for two years. Then, he decided to rebuild the National Socialist German Worker’s Party.[1]

Hitler fell in love with a twenty-year-old Geli Raubal who was his half‐niece. In 1929, they rented a nine-room apartment in the Prinzregentenstrasse, Munich and lived together. By end of summer 1931 Geli Raubal decided to return back to vienna to continue her singing class. But hitler refused to allow her which created a big drift in their relationship. Hitler also suspected that, Geli Raubal had a secrete affair with his bodyguard Emil Maurice. Hitler left Munich apartment on September 17, 1931 and went to Hamburg. On the next day Geli Raubal was found dead in her apartment and authorities confirmed it as suicide. During hitler’s political progress there were rumors stating that, hitler had killed Geli Raubal which was not proved till the end.[1]

Between 1929 and 1932, the German industry production fell down by 50% and millions of workers lost their jobs. By July 13, 1931 Germany’s major banks were temporally closed. Government was dissolved and new election was offered on September 14, 1930. Hitler’s propaganda for 1930 election made NSDAP as the second largest political party in germany.[1]

Hitler decided to run for president in 1932. Till that moment hitler didn’t have german citizenship, On February 25, 1932, a Nazi interior minister made hitler as an attache of the legation of Brunswick in Berlin which automatically made him a german citizen.[1]

Election result of March 13, 1932:[1]

 Name No of votes gained Votes in percentage
Hindenburg18,651,49749.6%
Hitler11,339,44630.1%
Thaelmann4,983,34113.2%
Duesterberg2,557,7296.8%

 

As none of them had majority, second election took place on April 10, 1932 and the results were announced late that night. Hindenburg won the majority to reform democratic Republic.[1]

  Name  No of votes gained  Votes in percentage
Hindenburg19,359,98353%
Hitler13,418,54736.8%
Thaelmann3,706,75910.2%

 

After election, On April 14, 1932 Hindenburg banned SA. To avoid civil war, a famous government figure Schleicher discussed issues with nazis to form a non-nazi government which would be accepted by Hitler. For making this possible hitler asked for favours such as cabinet positions, lift of SA ban and much more. Schleicher was convinced to offer nazis favors to avoid civil war. After stating a sound reason to Hindenburg, Schleicher replaced Brüning with Franz von Papen as chancellor who can be controlled by president Hindenburg from back side.[4]

Violence by SA started to increase and triggered the spark for civil war. Papen dissolved the government and new election was announced on July 31, 1932 to control the situation.[1]

Election result of July 31, 1932:[1]

 Party name Seats won
Nazis230
Social Democrats133
Communists89
Catholic Center73
The German National Party1

 

Nazis had a great victory in July 31, 1932 election. On August 4, 1932 hitler hurried to Berlin to meet Schleicher and made the following demands

  • Hitler – The chancellorship
  • Nazi Party – The premiership of Prussia, the Reich and Prussian Ministries of Interior, the Reich Ministries of Justice, Economy and Aviation, and much more.

Several elections were conducted in a short period of time due to political instability. The final election without knowing the future fate took place on November 6, 1932[1]

 Party name Seats won
Nazis196
Social Democrats121
Communists100
The German National Party52

 

After November election, there was a big race between Adolf Hitler and Franz von Papen for chancellor position.[1] Finally, after lot of issues, on the morning of January 30, 1933, Hitler was sworn in as chancellor of the Weimar Republic and The Third Reich had begun.[4]

The Nazi dictatorship:

Again the Reichstag was dissolved and a new round of elections were scheduled for March 5, 1933. A week before the elections on February 27, 1933 The Reichstag was set on fire. Nazis claimed that communists were responsible for the incident. On the other hand, Its assumed that nazi them self-fired Reichstag and blamed communists to take advantage of them, But the truth behind this incident is still unknown. Nazis used Reichstag fire incident to suppers all the other parties.[4]

Election took place on March 5, 1933 where nazis got 17,277,180 votes with 44%. The Nationalists party with 52 seats supported nazis to form the government.[1] With absolute majority hitler was less dependent on president and nazi dictatorship began by enabling emergency powers act under article 48. A law was passed on March 31 dissolving and reorganizing the state governments without elections. In first few months at office, Hitler cleverly dealed with german labors to take advantage of working class. This move made people’s to think, Hitler policies will help to improve countries economy. [4]

Strategies for nazi dictatorship:

  • The workers and their leadership momentarily were paralyzed
  • Trade unions were replaced with the Nazi-organized and -controlled German Labor Front.
  • One party state – By June 22, 1933 all other parties were dissolved except NSDAP leaving them a monopoly on political power.[1]

Nazis introduced new legal systems, But existing old system suppressed Nazi ideology. With no options left Nazis tolerated much of the old legal system. In general Civil law was not drastically altered, Army was not under nazi party control, economy was under control of big business and industry experts, economic program under Reichsbank president and economics minister. German economy started to improve gradually which reduced unemployment. Even nazis created public projects to reduced unemployment.[4]

The Autobahn (Highway) project had satisfied people’s and nazi’s in many ways like reducing unemployment, rapid movement of troops and fast supply of products. By 1934 the number of unemployed had been reduced to 3 million from 6 million and the rest was covered by reintroduction of military in 1935. At this point Hitler’s motive towards reintroduction of military was not to reduce unemployment, but to make german army stronger and less dependent of other countries.[4]

Homosexuality and abortion were considered as a great sin during nazi period. Strict enforcement were made by enabling legal act. The Reich Institute for the History of the New Germany was organized to rewrite history from the perspective of the Nazi racial ideology. To increase population of germany, women’s were urged to marry early. Motherhood and child rearing were promoted as highest value of society and women’s with eight or more children were awarded with a gold Mother’s Cross.[4]

Jews life in nazi period:

During this period, Nazi defined a person as jew if anyone had at least one Jewish grandparent. As nazis started anti jew sentiment, many Jews started to do interreligious marriages and many converted to Christianity. Nuremberg Laws were passed in 1935 to withdrew German citizenship from Jews and prohibited intermarriage between Aryans and Jews. Hitler’s initial move against churches for Nazification resulted in protest. Temporarily he allowed the churches to maintain their institutional and theological autonomy because he did not want to risk on the religion issues. During nazi period most of the religious holidays were considered as working days except Christmas and good Friday.[4]

The Holocaust:

Nearly 6 million Jews and more than 200,000 Gypsies were murdered by gassings and deployment groups in the camps. For executing their racial philosophy, Nazis had different kind of programs such as The Euthanasia Program, T-4 and Concentration camps.[4]

1) The Euthanasia Program:

The Euthanasia Program was carried out by physicians, medical personnel and state bureaucrats in public institutions for medical experiments and mass murder of external race.[4]

2) T-4 Program:

In nazi period millions of  jews were killed and it was called as “biological purification”. In 1939 Hitler implemented alleged medical and hygienic principles called T-4 against german jews in hospital. Ten thousand people’s were categorized as initial victims and sentenced to death by gassing in german medical institutions.[4]

3) Concentration camps:

Concentration camps included both jews and non-jews. Non-jews included Hitler’s opponents in politics and social communities. Torture, sexual perversion, and medical experimentation were all a part of concentration camp.[4] 

Beginning of conquest:

On March 7, 1936 Hitler’s army marched towards Rhineland on Germany’s western border violating versailles treaty. French army was strong at that time, they wanted peace than a war. 48 hours after march into Rhineland hitler acknowledge, “If french marched, it would have been the end of him and of Nazism”.[1]

On November 5, 1937 hitler called his generals for a top-secret meeting to get ready for the war in a diplomatic way. First it will be his native country Austria and then Czechoslovakia.[1][4] He also asked top officials to strengthen military power as soon as possible.[4]

On February 12, 1938 hitler received the Chancellor of Austria Schuschnigg for civil discussion. By end of discussion hitler asked Austria’s chancellor to accept closer military and economic ties, as well as to appoint an Austrian Nazi leader, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, minister of the interior.[4] The demand was accepted by Austrian chancellor and he decide to conduct a poll whether Austrian people’s wish to remain free and independent. The voting was to be held on March 13, 1938. Hitler knew the voting results will be against him. So, he sent the German army into Austria on the night of March 11, 1938. Austrian chancellor Schuschnigg was imprisoned for next seven years till the end of second world war. Later he was rescued by American troops when he was about to be killed by nazi secret police.[1]

Next, Hitler eyed on Czechoslovakia. Initially hitler demanded The Sudetenland. To his surprise, Neville Chamberlain – the Prime Minister of Great Britain supported hitler to avoid unwanted war. By september 1938 Chamberlain convinced Czechoslovak government to surrender Sudetenland. For keeping everything peacefully Chamberlain met hitler on September 22, 1938 at Godesburg to inform about the surrender of Sudetenland. Then hitler started to increase his demands like a blackmailer. By end of september 1938 everything was surrendered as per his demand. Slowly with his tricks hitler separated Slovakia from Czechoslovakia.[1][4]

Dr. Emil Hacha, the Czech President was at German Chancellery on March 15, 1939. Hitler claimed Dr. Emil Hacha to surrender remaining part of Czech. If not german army will march into czech by 06.00 A:M on March 15, 1939 and Prague will be destroyed by german air force. By early morning on the same day Dr. Emil Hacha surrendered Czech to hitler.[1]

World war II:

Conquest of Poland:

As usual hitler demanded the city of Danzig, a Polish territory and promised for territorial integrity of the rest of Poland. Meanwhile germany and italy signed “Pact of Steel”, a military alliance to help each other during war.[4] With this move Great Britain understood the intentions of hitler and Chamberlain informed Poland that if it was attacked Britain and France will give a helping hand in war against germany.[1] a nonaggression pact was signed by Stalin with Nazi Germany on August 23, 1939. It was a secrete treaty to divide Poland between russia and germany after conquest.[4]

Officially, On September 1, 1939, Hitler ordered his troops to invade Poland. Two days later britan and france announced war on germany. Lightning war strategy (Blitzkrieg) was used by germany for Poland invasion. Poland’s mobility, communication and supply services were completely destroyed in bombing by german air force. Within two weeks Poland army was surrendered and the land was divided between germany and russia as per treaty.[4]

Conquest of Norway:

Germany war strategist warned hitler that Lightning war strategy (Blitzkrieg) wont work out during winter period.[4] In Europe normally, winter is between November and February. Hitlers plan of invading Norway and Denmark was postponed temporally till the end of winter. By April 9, 1940, German naval, airborne, and army forces captured strategic positions in Norway. The British supported Norway by sending forty-five thousand soldiers, but they were back fired by germans. Norway surrender on June 9, 1940.[4]

Conquest of Denmark, Holland, Belgium:

In fact, Denmark was surrendered with two hours of encounter. On May 10, 1940 Lightning war strategy (Blitzkrieg) was implemented to invade holland and belgium. Holland surrendered in four days and belgium by end of May, 1940.[4]

Conquest of france:

German army with tanks along with artillery, anti-aircraft and other integrated support elements passed through Luxemburg for france invasion. French defensive line was disrupted with in first four days, French and British troops were forced back towards the coastal region. Large number of german soldiers started to enter france and by continuous victory of germans in battle field made france to surrender on June 10, 1940. This was considered as one of the most spectacular victories in military history.[4]

Invading England:

The plan for invading england “Operation Sea Lion” was scheduled on September 1940. By august 1940 germans decided to destroy british airbase completely, As germans should invade through English Channel. Blitzkrieg strategy was interrupted and attack was possible only through naval power in which germans were week when compared to british at that time. British air bases were not completely destroyed due frequent change in targets. During last week of august 1940 british bombed berlin which made germans to bomb london and other cities. As winter approached “Operation Sea Lion” was temporally stopped and continued later blindly by germans.[4]

Invading Soviet Union:

Hitler decided to take on soviet union during spring 1941, Mean while “Operation Sea Lion” continued against british after winter. Soviet union invasion didn’t take place in time as planned due to temporary diversion of Germany’s military power.[4]

Invasion of soviet union was named as “Operation Barbarossa”, which means the most massive Blitzkrieg to date. Hitler believed that the Soviet Union could be defeated within two to three months. Generals advised capture of Moscow would be the quickest way to force soviet union to surrender. But hitler ordered his generals to capture economical cities first. The major strategy of this operation was planned to capture the industrial and agricultural heartland of the Soviet Union. Hitler focused toward areas of economic importance such as Leningrad, Smolensk and Kiev.[4]

Comparison of military strength:[4]

 Military strengthGermanySoviet union
Solders4 million men4 million men
Aircraft4,00010,000 to 20,000 tanks
Tanks3,3006,000

 

Operation Barbarossa was kick started in June 22, 1941. Germans captured Smolensk in two weeks and Kiev by September 1941. Hitlers force progressed towards Leningrad and captured all the cities surrounding Leningrad by October 1941. Now Hitler agreed that his general were correct and capture of Moscow will put end to the war. German troops were forwarding towards Moscow and winter was approaching. It almost six months, winter started, It was considered as a huge draw back for german soldiers. German troops were not prepared to face long winter and snow of soviet union.[4]

Fall of Nazi emperor:

On December 6, 1941 Russia reinforced a new divisions from Siberia for counteroffensive to prevented Moscow.[4][5] Climate conditions and new divisions pushed back german central front. Generals warned hitler to move back their troops from enemy forces as a result of their initial defeat. Hitler removed many top generals and directed military operation by himself.[4] After Brauchitsch resignation, on December 19, 1941 hitler announced that he will take over the position of commander in chief of german army. Winter crisis and Hitler’s decisions between 1941-1942 gradually affected germans military strength.[5]

America was finally into world war II by December 1941. Hitler wanted to delay direct American military intervention in Europe until he defeat Russia. He wanted quick victory over Russia to manage Americans and tied Japan to take care of America, So that he can win over Russia.[4][5]

Officially, on December 11, 1941 Hitler declared war on America during his public speech and abused America President Roosevelt. At end of his speech, Hitler stated that a new agreement had been finalized between Germany, Italy, and Japan not to conclude in peace with Americans, British and their mutual nations.[5]

Germany’s oil shortage made Hitler to invade Stalingrad to capture oil fields. In April 1942 hitler instructed german forces to advance in south soviet union to defeat soviet soldier on River Don and capture Stalingrad. For this attack, the army was divided into Army group A (offensive attack) and Army group B (Protective front). Group A made a good progress until diversion of 300,000 german soldiers towards Trans-Caucasus. This slow progress of germans towards Stalingrad gave time for soviet defenders to strengthen their positions. By second week of september 1942 germans entered Stalingrad and a rigorous fighting was going on until mid october 1942.[5]

Allied force invasion in north africa:

British and american troops landed along the cost of morocco and Algeria on November 7&8, 1942. This allied forces captured north africa in few days. Hitler slowly recognized the power of allied forces and started to pour german troops into Tunisia. The loss of north africa and collapse in italy made hitler to fell that he is fighting against world of nations such as British, America, Russia and other mutual countries. Later hitler realized his mistake of invading soviet union without completing his task in west. This gave time for british for comeback.[5]

Advance of soviet union:

The 1942-1943 winter and lack of material supplies made germans to loss Stalingrad attack.[7] On January 31, 1943 soviet union officially announced that it had captured Stalingrad.[5] Chase was resumed by soviet soldiers and Germans were pushed out of soviet union gradually.[6] Soviet troops advanced towards germany by liberating Smolensk in September 30, 1943 followed by Kiev in November 6,1943,[7] Romania April 1944, and Poland in summer 1944.[4]

Plot against Hitler:

A conference was to be held on July 20, 1944 at Headquarters in East Prussia, where Hitler will meet Mussolini around 12.30. Colonel Graf von Stauffenberg brought a bomb fitted brief case with him to conference which will explode in twelve minutes once if its triggered. Stauffenberg placed the triggered brief case under a table and left conference room purposely at 12.40 to escape from blast. Exactly at 12.42 bomb exploded, But hitler survived with minor injuries.[5] The plotters including Colonel Graf von Stauffenberg and major suspects were sentenced to death on the same day.[8]

Advance of allied troops from west (British):

Normandy invasion of allied forces during world war 2
Image: Normandy invasion of allied forces during world war 2 [8]

In 1943 Trident Conference took place in Washington. An operation was planned by allied forces to invade west europe and it was named as “Operation Overlord”. Allied troops create army base in southern england and plans were made carefully by considering climate conditions for france invasion.[7] As planned allied troops invaded Normandy, a northern region of france by June 1944 which gave them a foot hold in west Europe.[4] Allied troops advanced through Belgium and crossed Rhine River on March 7, 1945.[7]

 

April 1945 german defense line at World war 2
Image: April 1945 german defense line at World war 2 [10]

Last days of Adolf Hitler:

Adolf Hitler celebrated his last birth day (56) with Eva Braun and few generals in underground bunker. By April 28 1945 soviet soldiers were only few block away from chancellery and advancing forward slowly. On April 29, 1945 between 01.00 and 03.00 Hitler married Eva Braun in front of municipal councilor in the small conference room of bunker.[1]

Hitler’s secretaries and few left generals attended weeding breakfast. Then, both brides gave a speech and concluded with “Now it was ended, It would be a release for him to die”. The weeding party ended with tears. He took one of his securities (Ms Gertrude Junge) to nearby room to dictate his last will and testament.[1]

Death of Adolf Hitler:

Hitler instructed Gertrude Junge (office secretary) to destroy all the documents. After having his last meal on April 30, 1945 around 14.30 Hitler took Eva Braun, Generals and his securities for a last farewell. Farewell was over and Hitler returned to his room with Eva Braun. It was Monday 15.30 on April 30, 1945, There was a revolver sound in Hitler’s room. After few minutes persons standing outside Hitler’s room rushed in and found both dead.[1]

Adolf Hitler shot him self in his mouth and his body was lying on sofa. Eva Braun found near him took poison. With in few hours after Hitler’s suicide soviet troops surrounded the building and found Hitler dead.[1]

References:

[1] William L. Shirer, ”The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany” Simon and Schuster, 1960.

[2] Josef Greiner, “Das Ende des Hitler-Mythos”, Amalthea-Verlag, Wien, 1947.

[3] Adolf Hitler, Ralph Manheim, “Mein Kampf”, Houghton Mifflin Company, ISBN-10: 0395925037, ISBN-13: 978-0395925034, September 15, 1998.

[4] Joseph W. Bendersky, “A Concise History of Nazi Germany”, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., ISBN 978-1-4422-2269-4, 2014.

[5] Alan Bullock, “Hitler: A study in tyranny”, Harper & Row, Publishers, Incorporated, New York, 1964.

[6] Joanna Bourke, “The Second World War: A People’s History”, Oxford University Press Inc., New York, ISBN 0–19–280224–0, 2001.

[7] Richard Natkiel, “Atlas of world war II”, Barnes & Noble, Inc., ISBN 0-7607-2043-6, 1985.

[8] George Feldman, “World War II: Almanac”, UXL USA, ISBN 0-7876-3830-7, 2000.

[9] Dick Geary, “Hitler and Nazism – Second edition”, Routledge, New York, ISBN 0-415-20226-4, 2000.

[10] Steven J. Zaloga, “Downfall 1945: The Fall of Hitler’s Third Reich”, Osprey Publishing Ltd, New York, ISBN: 978 1 4728 1143 1, 2016.

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